What is Asperger?

Q: 亞氏保加症狀(Asperger Syndrome, AS, 亞斯伯格) 是什麼?

A: 國際社會越來越多人討論AS。我們就本中心的個案經驗為大家簡介一下AS特質,如想更全面瞭解的話,不妨由文末兩個網站開始深究。

擁有亞氏保加特質(亞斯伯格特質)的成年人處事待人風格的而且確與眾不同。有統計資料指出 (Gillberg),在10000人中,約36至48兒童擁有亞氏保加特質,當中女生約佔5% (Hippler)。他們特別留意觀察個人喜好的事物,那些事物於別人眼裏可能是微不足道的細節,他們卻看在眼裏,甚至過目不忘,當中有丁點變化他們隨時察覺,甚至作出其他人意想不到的反應。

腦科學硏究顯示亞氏保家症狀和腦部的結構、活動和反應有密切關係。無怪乎他們在思慮、情感、溝通和適應社會等方面有與眾不同的特色。在成長過程中他們經歷的喜樂和難處亦有所不同。

例如幼童階段,擁有亞氏保家特性的孩子比較自我中心和固執。一般說來他們的語言溝通、情绪調節和社交方面會出現不同程度的發展困難。少年期情緖、社交適應、自我管理方面問题比較明顯。

踏入成年期,社交技能及適應生活上(包括學業和事業)的要求都會為他們帶來壓力,因為他們對感受的理解能力有限(包括對自己和別人的感受),加上在人際關 係上的判斷力弱,往往有苦說不清,於是小問題會變成大困局,適應上產生層出不窮的問題,如沒有及時協助會影响精神健康。

在智力特高的一群之中,亦不乏擁有亞氏保加特質的人, 他們知識吸收力特強,學仰魅力逼人。不過情感吸收力一般較弱,常令身邊人費解,甚至叫人既愛又恨!環顧你身邊的高材生、專家、老闆、領袖人物、數學家、電腦及科學奇才等, 不難發現擁有亞保加特質奇才的蹤影。

家人和師友需要及早認識亞氏保加特性,專業人士或有經驗的過來人應從中協助相關人士加深彼此瞭解,學習怎樣支持、協助、諒解和接納對方。

如需要更多資料,可到參照以下網址:

1.耶鲁大學公開課:自閉症講座
http://v.163.com/special/opencourse/autism.html

2.亞斯伯格症者職業重建與生涯發展
http://www.asdnetwork.org/週報專欄-weekly-news-column/台灣時報-及-中國日報-專欄/亞斯伯格症者職業重建阿與生涯發展/

文:Josephina Anna Ho (李賀若瑩)

﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣﹣

Q: What is Asperger?

A: Asperger individuals are borne with special talents. Usually their ability to attend to details and memorize visuals and patterns is exceptional. Scientists find some differences in the brain of people with Asperger that they develop different responses to the environment (e.g. their senses can
be very sensitive, slow to adjust, easily upset by slight changes, hyperfocus on things interesting to them, resist new things, much less responsive to people interaction than objects) since early childhood.

Most notably, they struggle with self understanding and social understanding and find challenges in making social judgement and close relationships through adulthood. Asperger individuals with Superior Intelligence will show intellectual charm but not necessarily social competence appropriate to their age. Looking around your colleagues and friends who show exceptional abilities without much social interests, you may spot on some Asperger adults. Useful resources can be found on some informative websites, such as http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/asperger/detail_asperger.htm

by Josephina Anna Ho

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